Primary Sources on the First Crusade


1. Western


Albert of Aachen

{1095-1119}

[CE 1:25-26] (wiki)

Latin:  

  1.  Susan B. Edgington (ed. & tr.), Albert of Aachen: Historia Ierosolimitana, History of the Journey to Jerusalem, (Oxford, 2007) 
  2.  RHC-Oc. 4:265-713
  3. PL (online)  

English:  

  1.  Susan Edgington (tr.), Albert of Aachen's History of the Journey to Jerusalem: Books 1-6, The First Crusade, 1095-1099,  (Ashgate, 2013)  [translation only of Latin (1) above]
  2.  Susan Edgington (tr.), Albert of Aachen's History of the Journey to Jerusalem: Books 7-12. The Early History of the Latin States, 1099-1119, (Ashgate, 2013) (CTT) [translation only of Latin (1) above]

Baldric of Bourgueil (Dol) ⇽ Gesta

{1095-1101}

[CE 1:130] (wiki)  

⇽ Gesta

Latin:

  1.  RHC-Oc. 4:1-111 [•]

English: –NA


Bartolf of Nangis ⇽ Fulcher

{1095-1106}

(wiki)

Latin:

  1.   Gesta Francorum Iherusalem expugnatium  RHC-Oc. 3:457-543

English: –NA


Caffaro di Caschilfellione

[CE 1:199] (wiki)

Latin: 

  1.  Caffaro di Caschifellone, Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de' suoi continuatori, dal MXCIX al MCCXCIII, ed. Luigi T. Belgrano and Cesare Imperiale di Sant' Angelo (Fonti SI, 11-14b; 5 vols., Genoa, 1890-1929) [—]
  2.  RHC-Oc. 5:41-73 [•]

English:

  1. Martin Hall and Jonathan Phillips, Caffaro, Genoa and the Twelfth-Century Crusades, (Ashgate, 2013) (CTT) [•]

Canso d’Antioca

[CE 3:895] (wiki)

Occitan: 

  1. Duparc-Quioc, S. (ed.), La Chanson d'Antioche, 2 vols (Paris, Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1977-8).
  2. Carol Sweetenham and Linda M. Paterson (trans.), The Canso d’Antiocha”: An Occitan Epic Chronicle of the First Crusade, (Ashgate, 2003) [•pdf]

English: 

  1. Carol Sweetenham and Linda M. Paterson (trans.), The Canso d’Antiocha”: An Occitan Epic Chronicle of the First Crusade, (Ashgate, 2003) [= Occitan (2)] [•pdf]

 


Charters

     see Letters and Charters


Ekkehard of Aura

{1095-1101}

[CE 2:392] (wiki)

Latin: 

  1. F. Schmale and I Schmale-Ott (ed. and tr.), Frutolfs und Ekkehards Chroniken und die Anonyme Kaiserchronik, (Darmstadt, 1972)  [•pdf]
  2. RHC Oc. 5:1-40 [•pdf]

German:

  1. F. Schmale and I Schmale-Ott (ed. and tr.), Frutolfs und Ekkehards Chroniken und die Anonyme Kaiserchronik, (Darmstadt, 1972) [•pdf]

English: –NA


Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana

{1095-1127}

[CE 2:489-490] (wiki)

Latin:

  1. H. Hagenmeyer (ed.), Historia Hierosolymitana (1095-1127), (Heidelberg, 1913) [—]
  2. RHC Oc 3:319-485 [•pdf]

English:

  1. Frances R. Ryan and Harold S. Fink (trans.), A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1969) [•pdf] [no kindle]
  2. Peters, Edward (ed.), The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Materials, 2 ed. (1998) [•pdf] [no kindle]

Gesta Francorum

{1095-1101}

[CE 2:529-530] (wiki)

Cited by:  1/3=6  Book/chapter=page

Latin:  

  1. Rosalind Hill (ed. and trans.), The Deeds of the Franks and Other Pilgrims to Jersusalem, (London: Nelson, 1962)

English:

  1. = faces pages in Latin (1) above

The following works are expansions of Gesta:

  • Baldric of Dol, Historia Jerosolimitana
  • Guibert of Nogent
  • Peter Tudebode
  • Robert the Monk (of Rheims)

Gilo of Paris, Historia vie Hierosolimitane

{1097-1099}

[CE 2:533] (wiki)

Latin: 

  1. C. Grocock and Elizabeth Siberry (ed. and trans.), The Historia vie Hierosolimitane (The History of the Journey to Jerusalem), (Oxford, 1997) [•pdf]

English:

  1. = facing pages with Latin (1) above

Guibert of Nogent, Gesta Dei per Francos (The Deeds of God Through the Franks)  ⇽ Gesta

{1095-1106}

[CE 2:548] (wiki)

Latin:

  1. R. Huygens (ed.), Gesta Dei per Francos, Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediavalis, 127A, (Turnhout, 1996) [—]
  2. RHC-Oc. 4:117-263 [•pdf]

English: 

  1. Robert Levine (trs.), The Deeds of God through the Franks: A Translation of of Guibert de Nogent’s Gesta Dei per Francos, (Rochester: Boydell, 1997) [•pdf]

      Historia Belli Sacri

      {1096-1110?}

      [CE 2:581] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. RHC-Oc. 3:165-229 [•pdf]

      English: –NA


      Letters and Charters

      Latin: 

      1. H. Hagenmeyer, Die Kreuzzugssbriefe aus den Jahren 1088-1100, (Innsbruck, 1901) 
      2. H. Hagenmeyer, (ed.) Epistulae et chartae ad historiam primi belli sacri spectantes quae supersunt aevo aequales ac genvinae, (Innsbruck, Verlag der Wagner’schen Universitiitsbuchhandlung, 1901)

      English: 

      1. M. Barber (tr.), Letters from the East: Crusaders, Pilgrims and Settlers in the 12th-13th Centuries, (Ashgate, 2013) (CTT) [• kindle]
      2. Dana Munro (tr.) Letters of the Crusaders (2nd ed) Philadelphia, 1902  (online)

      Orderic Vitalis

      {1096-1137}

      [CE 3:899-900] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Marjorie Chibnall (ed. and trans.), The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, 5 vols. (1969-1980)  [book 9 in volume 5 on crusades] [•pdf]

      English

      1. See Latin above [•pdf]

      Peter Tudebode ⇽ Gesta

      {1095-1102}

      [CE 3:948] (wiki)

      Latin:  

      1. John H. Hill and Laurita L. Hill (ed. and trans.), Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere, (Philadelphia: Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, 1974) [—]
      2. RHCOc 3:9-117 [•pdf]

      English

      1. See (1) above

      Ralph [Radulph] of Caen

      {1096-1112}

      [CE 4:1011] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Ralph of Caen, Tancredus, CCCM 231, ed. E. D’Angelo (Turnhout, 2011)
      2. Gesta Tancredi in Expeditione Hierosolymitana, RHC-Oc. 3:587-716
      3. online

      English: 

      1. Bernard S. Bachrach and David S. Bachrach (trans.), The ‘Gesta Tancredi’ of Ralph of Caen, (CTT) (Ashgate, 2010) [•pdf]

      Raymond de Aguilers

      {1095-1099}

      [CE 4:1009] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Raymond of Aguilers, Le “Liber” de Raymond d’Aguilers, ed. J. Hill and L. Hill, (Paris: Geuthner, 1969) [•pdf]
      2. RHC 3:231-310 [•pdf]

      English: 

      1. John H. Hill and Laurita L. Hill (ed. and trans.), Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1968) [•pdf]

      Robert the Monk [of Rheims] ⇽ Gesta

      {1095-1099}

      [CE 4:1042-1043] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Historia Iherosolimitana [RHC-Oc. 3:717-882] [•pdf]

      English: 

      1. Sweetenham, Carol (tr.), Robert the Monk’s History of the First Crusade, Historia Iherosolimitana [CTT 11] (Ashgate, 2006) [•pdf]

      William of Malmesbury ⇽ Fulcher

      {1096-1102}

      [CE 4:1279-1280] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Gesta Regum Anglorum, ed. and trans. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1998) [First Crusade = Book 4, chapters 343-384] 

      English: 

      1. See (1) above + commentary

      William of Tyre

      {1096-1184}

      [CE 4:1281-1282] (wiki)

      Latin: 

      1. Huygens, R.B.C. (ed.) Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis, 63/63A, 2 vols. (Turnhout, Belgium, Brepols, 1986) (critical edition)
      2. RHC Oc 1
      3. Online; Online (PL edition) 

      English: 

      1. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey, (trs.), A History of Deeds done beyond the Sea, 2 vols. (New York, Columbia Records of Civilization Series No. 35, Columbia University Press, 1943).
      2. Kindle Version of (1) above on Amazon
      • Books 1-8 = {1096-1099}, dependent
      • Books 9-11 = {1099-1118}, dependent
      • Books 12-13 {1118-1127}, dependent
      • Books14-23 = {1127-1184}, independent and fundamental

       

      2. Byzantine Greek Sources


      Anna Komnena

      {1081-1118}

      [CE 1:63] (wiki)  

      Greek: 

      1. (1) Leib, B. (ed. and French trans) Alexiade: Regne de I'empereur Alexis I Comnene (1081-1118), 3 vols. (Paris: Societe d'edition les belles lettres, 1937-1976) (critical edition with translation and commentary in French)
      2. (2) Greek text online

      English:  

      1.  Elizabeth Dawes (trans.), The Alexiad,  [online; kindle]

                 Online version of Dawes

           2. E. R. A. Sewter (trans.), The Alexiad of Anna Comnena, 2nd ed. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2009) 

                 [•paperback; •kindle]

       


      Zonaras

      {1081-1118}

      [ODB 3:2229] (wiki)

      Greek: 

      1. Zonaras, John, Annales, ed. Moritz Pinder (CSHB, 2 vols.), and vol. 3, ed. Theodor Biittner-Wobst. (Critical edition)
      • Online version of volume 3.  
      • Only volume 3 contains discussion of the era of the Crusades
        • Romanus IV Diogenes {1068-1071} = Zonaras 18.10-15 (3:682-707)
        • Michael VII Doukas {1067-1078} = Zonaras 18.16-17 (3:707-717)
        • Nikeporos III Botaneiates {1078-1081} = Zonaras 18.18-19 (3:717-726)
        • Alexios I Komnenos {1081-1118} = Zonaras 18.20-30 (3:726-768)

      English

      –NA for the period of the crusades

       Latin:

      1. Parallel Latin translation is found in (1) above.  

       

       

      3. Eastern Christian Sources


      Bar Hebraeus (Bar Ebroyo)  (Syriac)

      {1040-1286}

      [CE 1:152-3]; wiki

      Syriac:

      1. P. Bedjan, Gregorii Barhebræi Chronicon Syriacum, emendatum adnotationibusque locupletatum. Paris 1890

      English:  

      1. Wallis Budge (trans.), The Chronography of Gregory Abu'l Faraj ... Commonly Known as Bar Hebraeus, 2 vols (London, 1932). [•pdf]

      Gregory the Priest (Armenian) 

      {1136-1162} (continuator of Matthew of Edessa)

      [CE 2:547-8]

      Armenian: 

      1. La Chronique de Matthieu d'Edessa (962-1136), RHC Documents Armeniens 1:151-203 (Armenian with French Trans.)

      English: (See Matthew of Edessa below)

      1. Ara Edmond Dostourian (trans.), Armenia and the Crusades, Tenth to Twelfth Centuries: The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993) p 241-280 [•pdf]
      • Online NA

      Ibn al-Muqaffa’ (Severus/Sawirus) (Arabic +Coptic)

      {←1046-1300→}

      wiki

      History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria (an ancient multigenerational history of the Egyptian Christian Coptic Church)

      Arabic: (multi-volume series), with English Translation

      1. Abd al-Masih, Yassa; O. H. E. Burmester; Aziz S. Atiya; Antoine Khater, eds. (1943–1970). History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, Known as the History of the Holy Church of Sawirus ibn al-Mukaffa', Bishop of al-Asmunin. Textes et Documents. vol II. Cairo. (Arabic text with English translations and notes)
      2. Antoine Khater and O. H. E. Khs-Burmester, History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, vol. 3, trans.   (Cairo: La Societe d'archeologie Copt, 1968).  (Arabic text with English translations and notes)
      3. Khater, Antoine; O. H. E. KHS-Burmester, eds. (1974). History of the Patriarchs of the Egyptian Church, Known as the History of the Holy Church. Textes et Documents. vol IV.1-2. Cairo.  (Arabic text with English translations and notes)

      English: 

      1. Arabic edition above, with parallel English translation.
      2. English Translation only online:

      Matthew of Edessa, (Armenian)

      {951-1163} 

      [CE 3:806-807] 

      Armenian:

      1. La Chronique de Matthieu d'Edessa (962-1136), RHC Documents Armeniens 1:1-150 (Armenian with French Trans.)

      English:

      1. Ara Edmond Dostourian (trans.), Armenia and the Crusades, Tenth to Twelfth Centuries: The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, (Lanham: University Press of America, 1993) [•pdf]
      • Book 1 {951-1051}
      • Book 2 {1051-1191}
      • Book 3 {1101-1134}
      • Book 4 {1135-1162} → Gregory the Priest (continuator)

      Michael the Syrian (Syriac)

      {1088-1195}

      [CE 4:1136-1137]; wiki

      Syriac: 

      1. Chabot, J. B.  (tr. and ed.), Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche jocobite d’Antioche (1166-1199), vol. 4, Texte syriaque (Paris, 1910)

           2. Gorgias Press facsimile edition 

      French:

      1. J. B. Chabot (tr. and ed.), Chronique de Michel le Syrien, patriarche jocobite d’Antioche (1166-1199), 4 vols. (Paris, 1899-1910)
      • Online: vol. 3 covering the period of the crusades {1088-1195}] [•pdf]

      English:

      1. Moosa, Matti  (trans.), The Syriac Chronicle of Michael Rabo (Beth Antioch Press, 2014)

      The first two thirds of the book are derivative epitomes of other sources. Books 14-21 deal with the crusader period, in roughly chronological order. The later books have more first-hand material. The periods overlap a bit between chapters.

      • Book 13, Byzantine emperors {AD 844-1057} (pp. 581-598)
      • Book 14, Origin of the Turks (pp. 599-603)
      • Book 15, Byzantines and Turks {AD 1055-1122} (pp. 604-640)
      • Book 16, Middle East {AD 1112-1143} (pp. 641-663)
      • Book 17, Middle East {AD 1125-1152} (pp. 664-691)
      • Book 18, Middle East {AD 1153-1174} (pp. 692-704)
      • Book 19, (lost)
      • Book 20, Middle East {AD 1156-1180} (pp. 705-718)
      • Book 21, Middle East {AD 1181-1195} (pp. 719-736)

           2. Bedrosian, R. (trans.) The Chronicle of Michael the Great. (English translation of the Armenian abridgment of the original Syriac Chronicle)

      Pdf version


      Syriac Chronicle of 1234 (Anonymous) (Syriac) 

      {1040-1234}

      [CE 4:1136-1137; SCSC 206]

      Syriac: 

      1.   J.-B. Chabot, ed. Anonymi auctoris Chronicon ad annum Christi 1234 pertinens, (CSCO vols 81, 82, 109; Syr. 36, 37, 56) (Paris, 1916, 1920, 1937). Volume 1 (Syriac); Volume 2 (Syriac).[•pdf]

      Online

      Latin:

      2.   J.-B. Chabot, ed. Anonymi auctoris Chronicon ad annum Christi 1234 pertinens, (CSCO 109; Syr. 56) (Paris, 1937). Volume 3 [Latin translation of Syriac vol. 1 (#1 above)  {to AD 793}]

      Online

      French:

      3.   Albert Abouna and J. M. Fiey, (trans) Anonymi auctoris chronicon ad. A.C. 1234 pertinens, (Corpus scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, vol. 354; Louvain, 1974).  [French translation of Syriac vol. 2 (#1 above).  {Covers AD 793-1234}  Continues Latin translation #2 above.]

      Not Available Online.  

      English:  

      4.  A. Tritton and H. A. R. Gibb (ed. and tr.), “The First and Second Crusades in an Anonymous Syriac Chronicle” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 92 (1933): pages 69-102, 273-306 [•pdf]

      [= Abridged from Syriac §242-443 {AD 1098-1164}; for full translation see French translation (#3 above) pages 39-121]

      Online


       

      5. Jewish Sources


      Hebrew Chronicles

      {1096-1097}

      [CE 2:561-563] (wiki)

      Hebrew: 

      1. Habermann, A. (ed) Sefer Gezerot Ashkenaz ve-Zarfat, (Jerusalem 1945)
      2. Neubaurer, A. and M. Stern (ed) Hebraische Berichte uber die Judenverfolgungen wahrend der Kreuzzuge (Berlin, 1982) 

      English: 

          1- R. Chazan, European Jewry and the First Crusade (London,1987). pp. 223-297

      1. Long (L), 243-297 (= Eidelberg, Solomon
      2. Short (S), 225-242 (= Eidelberg, Mainz)

         2- Eidelberg, Shlomo, (trans.), The Jews and the Crusaders: the Hebrew Chronicles of the First and Second Crusades, (1996) [•pdf]

      1. Eliezar bar Nathan (Eidelberg, 79-93)
      2. Mainz Anonymous (Eidelberg, 95-115 = Chazan "Short")
      3. Solomon bar Simson (Eidelberg, 21-78 = Chazan "Long")

      Analysis of the complex relationship of these Hebrew narratives:

         Chazan, R. God, Humanity, and History: The Hebrew First Crusade Narratives, (2000)


      Jewish Letters

      • Goitein, S.D. "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders." Journal of Jewish Studies 3 (1952), pp. 162-177
      • Goitein, S.D. A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. V: The Individual: Portrait of a Mediterranean Personality of the High Middle Ages as Reflected in the Cairo Geniza. (1988) p. 372-379

       

      6. Arabic Sources

      Ibn al-Athir [universal history]

      {1095-1231}

      [EI/2 3:723-5; CE 2:625-626; wiki; MMHF 52-83]

      Arabic

      1. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kāmil fī'l-tārīkh, (Beirut 1965) 12 vols. + index

      1/1. vol. 9 = {1029-1059}

      1/2. vol 10 = {1059-1132}

      1/3. vol. 11 = {1133-1187}

      1/4. vol. 12 = {1188-1231}

      2. (selections) Kemel-Altevarykh RHC-Or.1:187-800 (+ French Translation)

      English (complete): 

      1/1.  Richards, D. S. (tr.) The Annals of the Saljuq Turks (London: Routledge Corzon, 2002)

      [covers years {1029-1097}]

      1/2.  Richards, D. S. (tr.)  The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fī’l-Ta’rīkh. Part 1: The Years 491–541/1097–1146: The Coming of the Franks and the Muslim Response, CTT 10 (Ashgate, 2010); ISBN: 978-0-7546-6950-0 [no kindle]

      [covers years 1097-1046}]

      1/3.  Richards, D. S. (tr.)  The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'l-Ta'rikh. Part 2: The Years 541–589/1146–1193: The Age of Nur al-Din and Saladin, CTT 15 (Ashgate, 2010); 978-0-7546-6951-7 [no kindle]

      [covers years 1046-1093}]

      1/4.  Richards, D. S. (tr.) The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi'l-Ta'rikh. Part 3: The Years 589–629/1193–1231: The Ayyubids after Saladin and the Mongol Menace, CTT 17 (Ashgate, 2010); ISBN: 978-0-7546-6952-4 [no kindle]

      [covers years 1093-1231}]

      French:

      2. (selections only) Kemel-Altevarykh RHC-Or.1:187-800


      Ibn al-Qalanisi [historian of Damascus]

      {1056-1160}

      [EI/2 3:815; CE 2:626; wiki; MMHF 7-28]

      Arabic

      Ibn al-Qalānīsī, Dhayl Tarīkh Dimashq, (Beirut, 1908), ed. al-Ābā’ al-Yasū’īyin

      [covers {1056-1160}]

      English

      H. A. R. Gibb, (selections ed. and trans.), The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades: Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi, (1932, 1967, rep. 2003) [+Kindle] 


      Kamal al-Din Ibn al-‘Adīm [historian of Aleppo]

      {to 1243}

      [EI/2 3:695-6; CE 3:703, wiki; MMHF 109-135]

      Arabic:

      1/1. (new ed.) S. Zakkār (ed.), Zubdat al-halab fī tārīkh Halab, 2 vols. (1997)

      1/2. (old ed.) S. Dahan (ed.), Zubdat al-halab fī tārīkh Halab, 2 vols. (1954)

      2. Bughyat al-ṭalab fī tārīkh Ḥalab, Everything desirable about the History of Aleppo. 11 volumes: I-X. ed. F. Sezgin; XI. Register of Biographies, compiled by David W. Morray. 1986-1990. [biographical dictionary of notables of Aleppo]

      French

      1/1. La Chronique d’Alep, RHC-Or. 3:577-690 [online]

      [covers {1097-1146}]

      1/2. E. Blochet (trans.) Kamāl al-Dīn Histoire d’Alep (Paris, 1900) [online]

      [covers {1146-1243}]

      English

      NA


      Maqrizi [on the Fatimids of Egypt]

      {1094-1172}

      [EI/2 5:193-4; CE —, wiki; MMHF 161-200]

      Arabic

      Maqrizi, Itti’āẓ al-ḥunafā bi-akhbār al-aʾimmah al-Fāṭimīyīn al-khulafā, 3 vols. (M. Ahmad, ed.), (Cairo 1996)

      vol. 3 {covers 1094-1172}

      English:

      NA


      Sibṭ ibn al-Jawzī [general]

      [EI/2 3:752-3; CE 4:1103-4; wiki; MMHF 84-108]

      Arabic:

      1/1. (new ed.)  (1987) Mir’āt al-Zamān, vol. 7

      [covers {1088-1123}]

      1/2. (new ed.) (1987) Mir’āt al-Zamān, vol. 8

      [covers {1101-1254}]

      2. (old ed.)  Mir’āt al-Zamān fī Ta’rīkh al-A’yān, 2 vols. (Hyderabad: Dayrat al-Ma’arif al-Uthmaniya, 1951-1953)

      French (selections):

      RHC Or 3:511-570

      English

      NA


      Abbreviations

      CE = The Crusades: An Encyclopedia (link)

      EI2 = Encyclopedia of Islam (2nd ed.) 12 vols. (1986-2004) (online)

      MMHF = Mallet, A. Medieval Muslim Historians and the Franks in the Levant, (Brill, 2014)

      NA = Not Available

      RHC Or = Recueil des historiens des croisades, Historiens orientaux (wiki), with links to online versions